Grinding processing technique (go up)

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1. Electroanalysis what problem should note when grinding? Electroanalysis grinding is had nearly 10 times taller than mechanical grinding efficiency, workpiece surface surface roughness can be stabilized in Ra0.

1 μ M, best can amount to Ra (0.

012 ~ 0.

01)pm, be produced by the surface of grinding quantity of heat is very few, won't make workpiece surface produces burn and crackle, exterior quality is good wait for an advantage, commonly used the material of the difficult grinding at grinding electric conduction. Using electroanalysis when grinding, should note the following problem. (1) injures emery wheel to avoid, begin the feed when using to answer a few smaller. Outside walking out of emery wheel when workpiece when, do not answer reentry knife. (2) is in grinding process, have a few scintilla of mechanical grinding wine or little electric spark are normal. If green electric spark or scintilla of white electric arc appear between workpiece and emery wheel, accompany have appearance of special Pi bang noise, the bond that shows emery wheel is shown and contact with workpiece, short-circuit. Must undertake reversal sex is handled at this moment (the power source anode that attends original work receives emery wheel to go up, receive the negative pole on emery wheel in the) on workpiece, undertake grinding, have bond electric corrode dissolves, make grind bead to show, in order to eliminate short circuit appearance hind, receive good power supply normally again, undertake grinding. (3) electrolyte should eject is in emery wheel center. The centrifugal force that relies on emery wheel high speed to rotate comes loose equably: Cloth makes the appearance at emery wheel labour. In installation and disassemble when emery wheel, do not want appearance of job of knock emery wheel, lest damage emery wheel. 2. What is mirror grinding? The workpiece surface surface roughness after grinding achieves Ra 0.

The grinding method of 01 μ M, call mirror grinding. Its grinding process is: Light uses sharp odd bead diamond, with very small nap lead and 80# of small nap deepness nap ~ W40 granule spends emery wheel, the cutting blade that makes emery wheel surface wears bead obtains the tall sex such as better small blade and small blade sex. When grinding, the small blade that wears bead is in workpiece apparently cut cut bits subtly. In the meantime, below appropriate pressure action, have the aid of produces attrition and polish at the small blade below half blunt condition and workpiece surface, make workpiece surface forms very low surface surface roughness. Next W5 of ~ of reoccupy granuality W14, add the colophony bond emery wheel that has black lead filling, pass more careful nap, below proper grinding pressure, repass attrition and polishing action, can make workpiece surface forms surface roughness to be Ra 0.

The lens face of 01 μ M. Normally surface roughness of the surface after workpiece grinding is more than Ra0. Olffm calls general grinding, surface roughness is in Ra (0.

1 ~ 0. Of 05) μ M for accurate grinding, surface roughness is in Ra (0.

0250 ~ .

012) μ M exceeds accurate grinding, surface roughness is in Ra 0.

01 μ M is mirror grinding below. 3. What is the principle of mirror grinding? The principle of mirror grinding is: Below precision of good machine tool and the premise that do not have vibration, use fine size (WlO is the following) , hardness is in the emery wheel of soft colophony bond, through careful nap, make emery wheel obtains the tall sex such as small blade and small blade, fourth to L the result of an exterior cutting and attrition polish action. Use emery wheel grinding, workpiece is apparently microcosmic outline is small outline of surface of emery wheel job some kind answer mirror. Method of the tool of emery wheel of microcosmic outline and emery wheel character, nap, nap and nap dosage have it and emery wheel surface to concern closely. When general grinding, because the dosage of nap emery wheel is bigger, grind bead to be in of diamond bump, cracked appearance is irregular, its section figure is different, emery wheel surface cannot form small blade, the workpiece surface surface roughness after grinding is so opposite bigger. And when mirror grinding exceeding essence of life, except use size outside the emery wheel with fine, softer hardness, when nap emery wheel, use very small nap lead and nap deepness, what make the generation wearing bead on emery wheel subtle with sharp diamond is broken, grind in every subtle cutting blade is formed on bead, make of every small blade it is good to wait for tall sex. In grinding process, as a result of attrition and tatty action, of small blade wait for tall sex to rise further, attrition polish action increases, make the exterior quality after workpiece grinding rises greatly. The play with action of small blade cutting and attrition polish correct and sufficient action, still will rely on reasonable operation and the cleanness that control fluid of grinding dosage, grinding to assure. 4. What characteristic does mirror grinding have? Mirror grinding is a light that development of grinding treatment domain rises whole superfinishing new technology, new technology. Can make through mirror grinding T the surface achieves extremely tall microcosmic geometry precision and extremely low surface surface roughness. This technology and abrade compare with superfinishing photograph, have following characteristic: (The Ra that 1) can obtain superfinishing and abrade treatment to be achieved not easily (0.

012 ~ 0.

006) μ M surface roughness. And can obtain taller workpiece appearance precision and dimension precision. (This kind of grinding and photograph of manual and abrade treatment compare 2) , can reduce labor intensity greatly, come true to be measured automatically easily. The treatment precision of workpiece and exterior surface roughness are stabler, operation technology facilitates master, and manufacturing efficiency is tall. (3) its size range of pipe bent is wider, can cone of round cylinder of grinding treatment inside and outside, inside and outside and simple figuration face. 5. What demand does mirror grinding have to grinder? Mirror grinding is high accuracy grinding. To achieve extremely tall treatment precision and extremely low surface surface roughness, should use high accuracy grinding machine commonly. If do not have high accuracy grinder, when the grinding on average grinding machine, the machine tool must achieve the following requirement: (1) vibration wants small. Grinder vibration basically is to force vibration and self excited vibration. When undertaking high accuracy and grinding of low surface roughness, vertical, transverse feed and grinding force are very small, below better in machining complex tigidity case, won't produce self excited vibration commonly, and main show is force vibration. Causing the main reason that forces vibration is emery wheel and electric machinery of emery wheel drive lopsided, accident of transmission leather belt, Bao Hou is abhorrent, deflection of grinding spindle system, the head wears electric machinery, hydraulic pressure electric machinery and hydraulic pump vibration, the inertial concussion of workbench reciprocate. These oscillatory concentration affect the emery wheel in grinding process the vibration of opposite workpiece, and the grinding quality that affects work. So, when discovery is oscillatory, analyse its Zhen Yuan, adopt corresponding arrange to inflict is eliminated or make its are reduced, achieve the opposite amplitude between emery wheel wearing and workbench to should be less than 0.

001mm, in order to satisfy the requirement of mirror grinding. (2) grinding spindle rotates precision wants tall. Grinding spindle rotates precision should is less than 0.

001mm. Of sliding bearing cooperate clearance to should be in (0.

01~0.

Between 015)mm. The circle grinds a bearing that should choose 4~2 class precision inside, increase negative charge beforehand (10~15)kg, or choose static pressure inside the circle is ground, its rotate precision beats in the radial inside 150mm length be less than 0.

005mm. (Sensitivity of orgnaization of 3) transverse feed and repeat precision tall. Its precision error should is less than 0.

002mm. Value of transverse feed scale should is less than 0.

005mm. , (motion of 4) workbench low speed wants smooth. Requirement workbench does not have creeping phenomenon below the low speed of 10mm / Min, speed of move back and forth exceeds 10 ﹪ almost. (5) grinding fluid should filter. In grinding only use course filters the grinding fluid of device, ability prevents what emery wheel falls off to wear bead and face of workpiece of the cut that worry bit. Nextpage6. When mirror grinding how to choose emery wheel? Mirror grinding is minim grinding, major action is attrition and polish. The tall sex such as the wears bead small blade sex that goes up to emery wheel and small blade has higher demand. So, to the characteristic choice of the emery wheel when mirror grinding, want to accord with undermentioned action demand. (1) abrasive. When grinding steel and cast-iron spare parts, should use corundum of Bai Gangyu, single crystal kind abrasive. To copper alloy and aluminium alloy, also use corundum kind abrasive. In corundum kind in abrasive, effect of Chan Pingang jade is best. Because abrasive of single crystal corundum is by the axial crystal such as onefold immediateness place is comprised,this is, and do not contain impurity, have higher mechanical strength. After the nap of emery wheel classics of this abrasive, can form better small blade, and the maintenance of small blade the gender is better. (2) granuality. The emery wheel appropriate of mirror grinding uses the size under W10. Because of the emery wheel of fine granuality, the exterior surface roughness after grinding is low, do not arise cut and pull hair. (3) hardness. Mirror grinding should use D, E, F to exceed soft emery wheel, divide the effect that produces attrition and polish at filling with benefit, reduce the workpiece surface surface roughness after grinding. (4) bond. Mirror grinding should use the emery wheel of colophony bond, add certain black lead is filling. (5) organization. The organization of requirement emery wheel is even and grinding of low surface roughness is close together, should choose (organization of number of 0 ~ 3) . 7. What demand does mirror grinding have to emery wheel balance and nap? The emery wheel of mirror grinding must pass delicate balance outside, after should undertaking idling 30min, have a balance the 3rd times. Achieve emery wheel to be able to stop to did not slant arbitrarily on balance wearing place, vibration is not had in grinding process. When emery wheel nap, the tall sex such as the small blade to reach emery wheel and form even subtle cutting blade, the requirement uses keener diamond, the vertex angle of diamond is 70 ° ~ 80 ° had better, its diamond is pointed sharp edge should under center of place nap emery wheel (1 ~ 2)mm, perpendicular angle is 5 ° ~ 8 ° left and right sides. Cannot use blunter King Kong slate pencil to come nap emery wheel, lest make the workpiece surface hair after grinding dark, burn. The transverse feed when nap is (0.

0025 ~ 0.

005)mm, floating rate is workbench (Min of / of 5 ~ 20)mm. 8. What demand does mirror grinding have to emery wheel balance and nap? The emery wheel of mirror grinding must pass delicate balance outside, after should undertaking idling 30min, have a balance the 3rd times. Achieve emery wheel to be able to stop to did not slant arbitrarily on balance wearing place, vibration is not had in grinding process. When emery wheel nap, the tall sex such as the small blade to reach emery wheel and form even subtle cutting blade, the requirement uses keener diamond, the vertex angle of diamond is 70 ° ~ 80 ° had better, its diamond is pointed sharp edge should under center of place nap emery wheel (1 ~ 2)mm, perpendicular angle is 5 ° ~ 8 ° left and right sides. Cannot use blunter King Kong slate pencil to come nap emery wheel, lest make the workpiece surface hair after grinding dark, burn. The transverse feed when nap is (0.

0025 ~ 0.

005)mm, floating rate is workbench (Min of / of 5 ~ 20)mm. 9. When mirror grinding how to choose craft parameter? The workpiece of mirror grinding, should be ground through kibble, essence and exceed essence of life to grind, final ability adopts the technology measure of mirror grinding. Before mirror grinding, workpiece surface surface roughness should under Ra0.

025 μ M, the dimension public errand of workpiece asks to achieve on deviation, or the experience that the basis operates actually, put the surplus of very small drop, offer the abrasion when mirror grinding, the geometrical appearance precision of workpiece is close friends. In grinding operation, wait for exterior blemish to avoid occurrence burn, nick, should not have scintilla or not the grinding scintilla with apparent be patient of appears. Want to judge emery wheel and workpiece correctly to whether be contacted, can adopt in workpiece apparently the red lead with Tu Yi very thin layer or the indication agent such as orchid oil, when the operation, the indication agent that should see workpiece go up only by erase of emery wheel place, show emery wheel already contacted workpiece namely. At this moment, press again (0. 0025 ~ 0. The grinding deepness feed of 005)mm, if grinding is normal, reentry goes (10 ~ 20) second journey of workbench move back and forth, without scintilla attrition polish can. The craft parameter of mirror grinding is as follows: (Grinding of the circle outside 1) . Nap tool is sharp odd grain diamond, emery wheel speed is (15~20)m / S. Speed of the workbench when nap is (5~10)mm / Min, the horizontal feed when nap is (0. 002~0. 003)mm, transverse feed frequency is when nap (St of second / of 2 ~ 4) , light repairs a frequency to be / St 1 times. _ is fourth speed is controlled for L0m / Min, workbench speed is (/ Min of 50 ~ 100)mm, transverse feed is when grinding (0. 003 ~ 0. 005)mm, transverse feed frequency is 1 times when grinding, light grinds a frequency to be (St of 20~30) second / . (2) planar grinding. Nap T is provided for sharp diamond, emery wheel speed is (S of / of 15 ~ 20)m, floating rate is the wheelhead when nap (6~l0)mm / Min, the perpendicular feed when nap is (0. 002~0. 003)mm, the perpendicular feed frequency when nap is (2 ~ 3) second, light repairs a frequency to be 1 times, workbench speed is (Min of / of 12 ~ 14)m, perpendicular feed is when grinding (0.

005~0. 007)mm, perpendicular feed frequency is 1 times when grinding, light grinds a frequency to be (~t of / of 3 ~ 14)7X, wheelhead cycle feed is (0.

05 ~ 0. 1)ram / St. (Grinding of the aperture inside 3) . Nap man is provided for diamond of sharp odd grain, emery wheel rotate speed is (10000 ~ ] 5000)r / Min, speed of the workbench when nap is (Min of / of 10 ~ 20)mm, transverse feed is when nap (O. 003)mm of · of 002 ~ O, transverse feed frequency is when nap (2 ~ 3)7. ~ / St, light repairs a frequency to be / St 1 times, workpiece speed is (7~9)m / Min, speed of the workbench when grinding is (Min of / of 60 ~ 100)rnlll, transverse feed is when grinding (0. . 03 ~ 0. 005)mm, transverse feed frequency is 1 times when grinding, light grinds a frequency to be (St of 15~25) second / . 10. What problem should note when mirror grinding? (Motive bed opens first when 1) works, if air bleeder should be opened, workbench journey speed should as far as possible a few faster. Can remove the air in oil cylinder, vitta so, it is good in stability of the hydraulic pressure when emery wheel of low speed nap to make. (When 2) nap emery wheel, diamond is in surmount emery wheel brim (inverting of the ability after 3 ~ 5)mm, repair light or had better build part of emery wheel brim into roundlet horn. Can decrease so or eliminate emery wheel to here grinds bead to fall off and affect grinding quality. (3) mirror grinding " to the knife " when and in grinding process, cannot grinding scintilla appears. 11. When the workpiece grinding of high accuracy of low surface roughness, have commonly what blemish and avoid measure? In grinding exceeding essence of life and mirror grinding, appear easily also the common flaw in general grinding, but the workpiece surface roughness as a result of grinding exceeding essence of life and lens face is very low, accordingly these blemish are highlighted with respect to more opposite ground, must use relevant measure to grant to stop in case, in order to assure the workpiece surface quality after grinding. (Surface of work of body of 1) net column produces ripple. Because have,its produce an account is force vibration and self excited vibration and surface of emery wheel job to wear away inhomogenous. Avoiding measure is: Balance emery wheel carefully, install self-poise device when necessary; Dynamic balancing undertakes after to emery wheel wearing electric machinery installs leather belt annulus, make absolutely amplitude is less than (1 ~ 2)pm, install balata or device of board vibration isolation on electric baseplate; Anthology match leather belt to want accident and Baohou to agree, make get power even, or use nylon lacy; Long blow slideway, anthology match roller, raise what emery wheel wears to fight brace up quality; Emery wheel is ground blunt hind should seasonable nap; Lower workpiece and workbench rate appropriately, reduce transverse feed. (Plane of 2) planar workpiece is moire. Avoiding measure is: Long blow slideway, raise wheelhead system stiffness; Adjust workbench inverting to bump piece or the reduce expenditure bolt of workbench reversal valve, pound in order to reduce workbench inverting; When nap emery wheel, install diamond on workbench face; Reduce perpendicular feed. The others is Alexandrine. (Occurrence cut of 3) columnar workpiece and planar workpiece face and nick. Producing an account is: Cutting fluid is not clean, the surface has the emery wheel after nap to wear bead raisedly individually; Emery wheel grinds a too thick, brittleness that wear bead to be mixed greatly emery wheel is soft hard inhomogenous, grind bead to fall off easily etc. Avoiding measure is: Undertake filtering to cutting fluid, maintain grinding fluid to not have worry bit, grind bead and dirt; The grinding liquid that large flow should use after emery wheel nap undertakes rinsing to surface of emery wheel job, or undertake trying grinding first, wait for the bulgy reentry after grinding bead to fall off to go formal grinding; Logical choice emery wheel and nap dosage; Become nap of horn of emery wheel both sides step or round part, grind bead in order to prevent part of emery wheel pointed part to fall off. Dosage of logical choice grinding; Workpiece wants the exterior surface roughness that the working procedure before achieving sets; Adjust improvement of position of cutting fluid nozzle to rinse the effect. (4) is cylindrical workpiece produces helix trace or flat look work produces linear trace. Its produce an account is: Emery wheel nap is undeserved, or the grinding spindle when nap becomes warped head or lower one's head; Emery wheel and work look produce deflection to the position; Emery wheel is in width direction hardness is inhomogenous. Avoiding measure is: Dosage of logical choice nap, want to increase grinding fluid flow when nap; When installation emery wheel is worn, should make grinding spindle becomes warped the head is made an appointment with 0. 005 / ~oomm, after waiting for emery wheel to install, make emery wheel axis adjacent at the level; Raise the tigidity that emery wheel wears, reduce emery wheel to wear the deflexion after getting power; When systematic tigidity is not worth Ding Yi, should reduce grinding dosage; Drive to run for some time for nothing before the job, after waiting for a machine tool to achieve hot balance, have nap emery wheel again or begin the work; Change emery wheel. (5) burn. Its are main the reason is emery wheel nap meticulous with Guo Dun, grinding deepness is big, feed is mixed too quickly the cooling effect of grinding fluid is poor. Avoiding measure is: Emery wheel is ground blunt hind should press a demand seasonable nap emery wheel; Reduce grinding deepness and feed rate, raise workpiece rate appropriately; Adjust position of grinding fluid nozzle, make grinding fluid enters grinding area, improve cooling result. Nextpage12. Does emery wheel electroanalysis what is the principle of mirror grinding? To the diamond emery wheel of metallic bond, mix before beginning to use the nap after use passivation is very difficult. Special when the data of pottery and porcelain that uses its grinding tall hardness, high strenth, tall brittleness, diamond emery wheel will wear away, jam and passivation, make grinding force increases, grinding heats up heighten, work is changed poor by grinding surface quality, and even cannot normal grinding. Emery wheel electroanalysises mirror grinding law is to use electroanalysis principle, on the diamond emery wheel that receives power source anode metallic bond, receive power source negative pole the black lead electrode with adjacent of photograph of diamond emery wheel to go up, the clearance of black lead electrode and King Kong emery wheel is about 0.

1mm. Should be in adding between negative pole have dc pulse voltage, pouring in their clearance salt kind when water-solubility electrolyte, regard the metallic bond of positive electrode as the surface, will happen to electroanalysis faintly phenomenon, be like graph 2-34. In grinding process, undertake electroanalysising to metallic bond ceaselessly, make already bead of stone mill of tatty King Kong falls off, and make diamond emery wheel is in sharp condition from beginning to end, achieve normal grinding. This kind of emery wheel electroanalysises grinding technology, make emery wheel won't arise in grinding process not only grind bits to jam, hold emery wheel sharp, and can make be mixed imperceptibly exceed the performance of fine emery wheel grinding that exceeds hard abrasive to make to get be developinged adequately. Use technology of this kind of grinding, can undertake efficient mirror grinding to the pottery and porcelain of high temperature structure, its surface surface roughness can amount to Ra0. 01 μ M. Below same grinding condition, the cutting blade of emery wheel heals sharp, performance of emery wheel grinding has healed, cutting force heals small, cutting temperature is low, grinding efficiency is tall, workpiece surface quality and treatment precision are tall. 13. Does influence emery wheel electroanalysis what does the element of mirror grinding have? Electroanalysis in emery wheel in mirror grinding process, the factor that affects it also is mixed general grinding is identical outside, the capable person that other element has bond of emery wheel metal is qualitative, electroanalysis power source character and electroanalysis grinding fluid. (The material of 1) metal bond is qualitative. Exceed metal of bond of hard abrasive emery wheel to differ, the grinding force in grinding process is different also, its law is in to grinding force (50 ~ 125)MPa changes. Bronze bond emery wheel electroanalysises the grinding force of grinding is the smallest, emery wheel of cobalt radical bond electroanalysises the grinding force of grinding is a few more largish, fiber is cast-iron base emery wheel electroanalysises the grinding power of grinding is a few greater, the grinding power that uses common grinding is the greatest. (2) electroanalysises power source. Electroanalysis the dc pulse power source that emery wheel bond uses, this power source can offer voltage of dc, high frequency pulse not only, and the alternating voltage that can offer different frequency. (3) electroanalysises grinding fluid. In electroanalysis in emery wheel mirror grinding, should use electroanalysis infirmly lubricating fluid of alkalescent water-solubility refrigeration is advisable. 14. Does emery wheel electroanalysis does mirror grinding apply to grinding what material? Emery wheel electroanalysises the method of mirror grinding, can be in high accuracy is transformed through power source on all sorts of grinder, the circle outside undertaking, inside aperture, planar, spherical wait for grinding. Apply to the mirror grinding of electronic material and magnetic material, be like the mirror grinding of magnetic head of oxygen of Gan of silicon chip, iron, optical material, the mirror grinding of material of pottery and porcelain, the mirror grinding of tall hardness iron and steel, composite material and hard alloy. 15. What is to wear stuff hard? How divisional? Material of alleged difficult grinding, add man-hour in grinding namely, the material with the grinding poor processability of material. Wear material and difficult cutting stuff hard, have a lot of common characteristics, also have not identical characteristic. In wearing stuff hard, some compares good cutting, if the copper in nonferrous metal, aluminium reachs its alloy. Quench commonly steel, cutting is very difficult, but grinding is easier. Grind material hard to be able to distinguish by following method: (The tantalum that 1) contains by material will distinguish. Chromium is contained in material (Cr) , nickel (1Ni) , tungsten (W) , molybdenum (Mo) , manganese (Mn) , titanium (Ti) , aluminous (A1) , cobaltic (Co) , vanadium (the element such as V) , increased the intensity of material, tenacity, plasticity and hear resistance, lowered the thermal conductivity of material, grinding is more difficult. (2) distinguishs by grinding comparing. Below most circumstance, of the bulk of the volume that compares G(abrasion data according to grinding and emery wheel wear and tear than) will distinguish of material grinding function good with difference. Grinding comparing is big, material grinding is easy, conversely difficult. Grinding compares little data, in grinding process, emery wheel wears away muscularity of fast, grinding, grinding temperature is high, easy generation is oscillatory, manufacturing efficiency is low. (3) distinguishs by the physics of material, mechanical function. The tenacity of workpiece material, plasticity is tall, hardness and coefficient of thermal conductivity are low, grind bits easy conglutinate to be in emery wheel apparently, jam emery wheel is stomatic, make emery wheel loses grinding ability, cause grinding force to increase, grinding temperature heighten. Be like alloy of grinding high temperature, titanium alloy, stainless steel, Gao Fan high-speed steel, pure iron, pure copper, aluminium. (4) distinguishs by exterior quality. Some workpiece material are when grinding, easy generation burn and crackle and exterior surface roughness are big, be hard to achieve exterior quality requirement. This kind of material also be hard to grinding. 16. Grind material hard what to phenomenon produce easily when grinding? (1) burn. In grinding tenacity the stuff with big, low coefficient of thermal conductivity, granuality of together with emery wheel and hardness character choose undeserved, emery wheel to be spent too blunt and greatly without seasonable nap, grinding mix greatly cooling fluid supply deficiency or not pouring to grinding zone time, easy generation burn. This kind of phenomenon, in grinding alloy of a few alloy steel, heat-resisting is mixed when stainless steel relatively outstanding. Because these are difficult the tenacity that wears stuff is big, grinding obstruction and grind bits to be out of shape big, the coefficient of thermal conductivity that adds material is low, the high temperature of grinding area (1000 ℃ above) conduct not easily go out, appear possibly gyroidal or stain form burn. (2) emery wheel jams. This is in grinding plasticity a kind of when wearing stuff hard phenomenon with tall, low hardness. The emery wheel when grinding grinds the cutting blade of bead, the shiver of metabolic workpiece material that is ground to fall sticks paste to live, and go up not easily from emery wheel except, in emery wheel apparently form to stick mushy compound, make chafe when grinding aggravate, emery wheel loses grinding ability, grinding condition is exasperate. Most outstanding when alloy of grinding red copper, aluminous, stainless steel, titanium, heat-resisting alloy. (3) emery wheel wears away serious. In grinding tenacity when the stuff with big, expensive intensity, cut bits not easy from, grinding muscularity, emery wheel wears away serious. If be when the stuff with the sclerotic and serious treatment such as alloy of grinding austenite stainless steel, high temperature, hard alloy and tall vanadium high-speed steel, because emery wheel look is changeful blunt, threshing is too fast, wear away serious. Nextpage17. What does the grinding way that settles difficult grinding material have? The grinding way that settles difficult grinding material has: Fluid of dosage of logical choice emery wheel, grinding, grinding and grinding technique. Emery wheel of 1) logical choice is reasonable choice emery wheel is characteristic, it is to settle one of important ways that grind material grinding treatment hard. (1) chooses appropriate abrasive. Grinding grinds material hard to often use Bai Gangyu (corundum of WA) , zirconium (corundum of ZA) , single crystal (SA) , microcrystalline corundum (MA) , green carborundum (GC) and cubic nitrogen change the abrasive such as boron. If use the stainless steel such as 1Crl8Ni9Ti of zirconium corundum grinding, not only grinding efficiency is tall, and burn of not easy generation; Use grinding of single crystal corundum the hardness such as alloy of high temperature of common high-speed steel and tall vanadium high-speed steel, stainless steel and GH2132, GH901 the material effect it may not be a bad idea with tall, old tenacity; With alloy of titanium of grinding of green carborundum emery wheel, quench with microcrystalline corundum grinding nodular cast iron its effect is very good also. Grind the grinding of material hard to solve some to plant sometimes, use a few kinds of abrasive to mix by different scale make emery wheel, its grinding effect is better than the emery wheel of onefold abrasive. If use Bai Gangyu 80 % + green carborundum nickel radical casts the emery wheel grinding of the mixture abrasive of 20 % high temperature alloy, use the mixture abrasive emery wheel of single crystal corundum and microcrystalline corundum, grinding aluminous high-speed steel, can solve burn problem. (2) chooses the abrasive of two kinds of distinct size. Choose the emery wheel that the abrasive of two kinds of distinct size makes by certain proportion, be helpful for raising the durability of emery wheel. (3) chooses right emery wheel hardness and knit. When grinding wears stuff hard, should choose the emery wheel with hardness on the low side, loose organization. This is because of the emery wheel with low hardness, bead is worn in grinding process easy fall off, make emery wheel surface obtains new sharp cutting blade, grinding temperature and grinding force are consequently inferior, cause T not easily exterior burn, improvement grinds what bits makes the appearance to emery wheel labour to stick paste. Wait for the difficult problem of grinding to solve GH90l of high temperature alloy, GH2132, use atmosphere aperture to organize loose emery wheel, have apparently good effect. But emery wheel organization is loose, also want to suffer grinding to impose the restriction that T precision asks. Because emery wheel organization is loose, emery wheel hardness is too soft, to retaining treatment precision also has adverse one side, must measurable. Dosage of grinding of 2) logical choice (the choice of speed of 1) emery wheel. Below general situation, grinding grinds the emery wheel speed of material hard to answer under 35m / S. But use high speed grinding to wear stuff a little hard, also have very good effect. If choose U of emery wheel speed. Grinding of =55m / S] Crl8Ni9Ti, its produce efficiency and emery wheel durability to be able to raise 1 times than speed of general emery wheel. Employ the high temperature alloy such as GH2132 of grinding of S of υ C=60m / , also can make grinding efficiency raises L times. But when employing alloy of titanium of grinding of green carborundum emery wheel, have to use the emery wheel rate with inferior S of υ C=17m / , can obtain the grinding that is as high as 25 to compare so. (2) grinding deepness. Because grind the grinding processability of material hard to differ, below general situation, should use small grinding deepness. If employ alloy of titanium of TC4 of grinding of green carborundum emery wheel when, with lesser grinding deepness, can obtain the metal with taller bigger than mixing grinding to excise a quantity. But even if grind,using S of υ C=50m / ,quench when nodular cast iron, should use however 0.

The bigger grinding deepness of 1mm, when P(0 of grinding deepness α .

0l-0.

When 02)mm, emery wheel is jammed easily instead, quicken emery wheel passivation. (3) workpiece speed. Should use higher workpiece rate, with reduce or preventing workpiece burn. But when using grinding of deep-felt delay feed, to avoid burn, should choose inferior workpiece career. 3) is reasonable it is difficult to choose grinding fluid to be aimed at grind material to choose different grinding fluid, it is the important way of the grinding processability that improves data. When the GH901 that is matrix in grinding iron, nickel, chromium for example and alloy of GH2132 high temperature and titanium alloy TC4, why to no matter use,plant emery wheel, amount of its metal excision is very small, grinding comparing is in 2 the following. But after using oil of light vulcanization cutting to make grinding juice, its metal excised a quantity to raise 4 times, grinding comparing raised 10 times above. If use diamond sand milling,cut steel radical again when hard alloy, the aqueous solution that employs borax and 3 alcohol amine makes grinding juice, can improve the appearance sticking bits of surface of emery wheel job, and rise to grinding is compared and reduce workpiece surface surface roughness. When method of grinding of 4) logical choice solves material grinding problem hard with grinding method when common abrasive, can adopt the technology measure below. (1) uses making synthetic diamond and cubic nitrogen to turn boracic emery wheel. (2) is used electroanalysis grinding of grinding, electric spark grinding, deep-felt delay feed, electroanalysis emery wheel grinding and arenaceous belt grinding. (3) uses grinding of groovy emery wheel, in order to reduce grinding heat, improvement comes loose hot condition, mitigate workpiece burn and grinding flaw. 18. What characteristic does high-speed steel of emery wheel grinding have with boron of cubic hydrogen sulfide? High-speed steel is to quench there is the steel of special purpose to plant in steel. Because cubic nitrogen changes boracic character, it is the emery wheel of abrasive make it with it, special apply to grinding high-speed steel. Use high-speed steel of grinding of corundum emery wheel, especially when the tall vanadium high-speed steel with very difficult grinding, grinding muscularity, grinding temperature is high, easy happening burn, emery wheel grinds bead to wear away fast, easy jam, easy threshing, grinding is very difficult. Change W18Cr4V of grinding of boracic emery wheel, W2M with cubic nitrogen. 9Cr4V. Of 5 kinds of high-speed steel such as C08, W6M05Cr4V5SiNbAl, W6MoSCr4V5C03SiNbAl, W10M04Cr4V3A1 when trying a club, 17mm of accumulative total abrasion, emery wheel is sharp still. If use the cubic nitrogen of copper facing to change boron,grind the emery wheel of bead again, broach of grinding W6MoSCr4VSSiNbAl high-speed steel, can grind 150+TJN, and with white corundum emery wheel a tooth also is not ground, single crystal corundum is added small the emery wheel that tastes corundum can be ground only piece (7 ~ 8) tooth. (1) changes high-speed steel of grinding of boracic emery wheel to have very tall durability with cubic nitrogen. The 1 / that its wear extent is single crystal corundum 64, the 1 / that is green carborundum 104, the 1 / that is Bai Gangyu 99. (2) has very tall grinding to compare. The grinding that converts high-speed steel of Gao Fan of W12Cr4VSCo of grinding of boracic emery wheel with cubic nitrogen is compared for 140, and corundum kind emery wheel is 10. The grinding that with it grinding W2MogCr4VC08 exceeds hard high-speed steel is compared for 660, and corundum kind emery wheel is L0. With it the grinding of high-speed steel of grinding W6MoSCr4V2 tungsten is compared for 980, corundum kind emery wheel is 10. (3) can avoid burn. When using high-speed steel of grinding of corundum emery wheel, emery wheel wears away very quickly, be like not seasonable nap, with respect to meeting occurrence burn, affect grinding quality. With cubic nitrogen the emery wheel that change boron undertakes grinding, be over till the working layer wear and tear of emery wheel, also do not need prune, grinding surface also won't appear burn. (4) grinding power is little. Cubic nitrogen changes boracic emery wheel to have very high grinding capacity, unit grinding power is less than corundum emery wheel / of 2 / 3~5 6. 19. Is stainless steel in grinding from time to tome what characteristic? Normally people is more than the quantity that contain chromium 12 % or the alloy steel that the quantity that contain nickel is more than 8 % call stainless steel. It is certain to this kind of steel is in atmosphere or be had in corroding medium be able to bear or endure corrode ability, be in higher temperature (> 450 ℃ ) next having higher intensity. Amount to 16 9 / when the quantity that contain chromium the steel of 18 % of 6 ~ calls acid-proof stainless steel. Still add the element such as MoMnCu, Nb, Ti, W, Co in stainless steel, what raise steel not only is anti-corrosive ability, LSl~dz changed the in-house organization of steel and physics, mechanical property. These alloying element differ in the content in steel, produce distinct effect to the function of stainless steel. Some has magnetism, some does not have magnetism, some can heat treatment, some criterion cannot heat treatment. Because stainless steel is had,be able to bear or endure low · of corrode, heat-resisting, plasticity and tenacity, coefficient of thermal conductivity and use Yu Hang extensively in the industrial department such as day, aviation, chemical industry, oil, building and food and daily articles for daily use. The cutting of stainless steel and grinding processability are poorer, grinding it from time to tome the following characteristic: (1) worries bit easy conglutinate, jam emery wheel. When grinding stainless steel, grind bits easy conglutinate to make the appearance in emery wheel labour, jam the stoma on emery wheel, make grind bead to lose cutting action. The stainless steel of different sort, the level of this kind of phenomenon that appears when grinding is different also. If grinding is able to bear or endure thick nitric acid and heat-resisting stainless steel, most serious. Take second place of austenite stainless steel. The conglutinate of martensite stainless steel such as 1Crl3, 2Crl3 and jam lighter. (2) grinding muscularity, grinding temperature is high. The tenacity of stainless steel is big, hot intensity is high, and the grinds bead cutting cutting tool of emery wheel has the very large part before losing, grinding process grinds bits mediumly to be cut not easily to leave, cutting resistance is very great, extruding, attrition is acuteness. The coefficient of thermal conductivity that adds stainless steel compares general steel low much, create force of unit area grinding 68000MPa, grinding area temperature is amounted to (1000~1 500) ℃ , produce burn easily. (3) grinding case hardening is serious. In grinding process, attrition, extruding is out of shape big, cause grinding surface layer cold good appearance is serious. Because the outspread rate of stainless steel is old, below the action of great grinding power, metallic plasticity is out of shape, amlposition of character and morals, coefficient of intensification greatens, make _T surface layer hardness is taller than matrix hardness (1. 4 ~ 2. 2) times. When grinding austenite stainless steel, this one phenomenon is most serious. In the meantime, as a result of the high temperature of grinding, workpiece surface still can produce anneal phenomenon, anneal deepness can be amounted to sometimes (0. 0l ~ 0. 02)mm. (4) workpiece is out of shape big. The linear expansion coefficient of stainless steel is bigger than general steel products, because this causes heat easily,bilge cold reduced scale inch the error that goes up with appearance. Mix in grinding slightness axis especially Bao Bi when, easy generation warp rough or dimension changes. (5) places difficulty without fashionable dress of plane abrasion of magnetism stainless steel. Wait for austenite to 1Crl8NigTi kind stainless steel, cannot be magnetized, when planar grinding, can rely on mechanical clip to originally only or be placed with special fixture hold work. When grinding thin plate, can use workpiece flank clamp only, can cause workpiece to be out of shape or on size error. Also can cause the flutter in grinding process at the same time, and the ripple of shape of occurrence scale spot. Nextpage20. When grinding stainless steel how to choose emery wheel? Because the grinding characteristic of stainless steel and grinding processability are poor, logical choice emery wheel, the efficiency that affects grinding treatment directly and quality. (1) abrasive. As a result of Bai Gangyu (the cutting performance with better WA) and from acute function, emery wheel is sharper, grind bits to be out of shape small, grinding force and grinding temperature are low, comfortable at grinding martensite and martensite + ferrite stainless steel. Single crystal corundum is 6 monocrystal, grind bead to be globose much arris polyhedron, the intensity of cutting blade and tenacity are tall, apply to grinding austenite and austenite + ferrite stainless steel. Microcrystalline corundum is 6 get together crystal, wearing bead is tenacity the tiny crystal aggregate with big, high intensity, good from acute sex. Its the characteristic from acute is the aperture burst with microcrystalline edge, can obtain the tall sex such as small blade sex and small blade thereby, can reduce _ man burn and the phenomenon that pull hair, can reduce the surface roughness of grinding surface, raise grinding comparing, agree with grinding all sorts of stainless steel. Use microcrystalline corundum and green carborundum to mix the emery wheel that abrasive makes, use at grinding austenite stainless steel, can reduce grinding surface surface roughness. Decrease and eliminate grinding burn appearance. The hardness that cubic nitrogen changes the hardness of boracic abrasive to be next to diamond (HVl0000) , its chemical stability is good, not with element of iron a group of things with common features happens to be mixed in person action, in (℃ of 1300 ~ 15 0()) does not oxidize, needle of the blade that wear bead becomes not easily blunt, grinding force and grinding heat are so low, grinding surface quality is high, agree with grinding all sorts of stainless steel. (2) granuality. Stainless steel is when grinding, worry bit easy conglutinate and jam man of emery wheel _ makes the appearance. It is so when grinding, should choose more general than grinding steel products the emery wheel of a bit thick granuality. The emery wheel that granuality waits for in using 36# , 46# , 60# commonly is advisable. Among them when kibble, use 36# and 46# , 60# size is used when essence of life is ground. Undertake kibble and essence are ground at the same time, should use 46# or 60# size. (3) bond. The emery wheel of grinding stainless steel, the requirement has higher strength, with can bearing bigger load. Heat-resisting of bond of pottery and porcelain, fight corrode, do not be afraid of moisture, have porous, can hold the grinding property of emery wheel not only, and have tall productivity, agree with the bond of emery wheel of stainless steel of the grinding that make. Grinding is acid-proof the Kong Shi inside the material such as stainless steel, also can use colophony bond to make emery wheel, can reduce the surface roughness of grinding surface. (4) hardness. When grinding stainless steel, wait for a reason as a result of material function and grinding characteristic, emery wheel becomes easily blunt, the emery wheel hardness that should choose is more general than grinding steel products is small, make emery wheel obtains Bai Rui sex. But the hardness of emery wheel cannot pass low, too low the emery wheel after is broken away from too fast, cause grinding comparing to reduce, emery wheel appearance preserves sexual difference. Should choose the emery wheel of hardness of G ~ N commonly, among them K ~ L is used most much. But using small taste corundum abrasive to make inside when aperture emery wheel, the emery wheel hardness that should use H, J is advisable. (5) organization. Jam in grinding process to avoid emery wheel, emery wheel organization should be chosen loose (date of 5 ~ 8) is advisable. 21. When grinding stainless steel how to choose grinding dosage? (Speed of 1) emery wheel. The emery wheel speed when grinding stainless steel is unfavorable choose exorbitantly. Exorbitant meeting causes emery wheel to jam, lose grinding ability, produce grinding burn. The emery wheel speed of bond of pottery and porcelain is (Min of / of 30 ~ 35)m; The emery wheel speed of colophony bond is (Min of / of 35 ~ 50)m. When discovering workpiece surface has burn appearance, answer to lower emery wheel rate appropriately. Practice is informed, the emery wheel speed of grinding stainless steel is 25m / S the following and appropriate. (2) workpiece speed. Workpiece speed is along with the change of emery wheel speed change. Outer net grinding and inside when net grinding, the 100 ~ of 1 / that are emery wheel speed commonly 1 / 60. When undertaking planar grinding with emery wheel outer net, workbench speed is commonly (Min of / of 15 ~ 20)m. (3) grinding deepness. What the grinding deepness when grinding stainless steel cannot choose is too small, kibble deepness is (0. 04 ~ 0. 08)mm, essence of life grinds deepness for 0. 0lmm. Grinding deepness should be reduced appropriately after nap emery wheel. (4) feed. Outside the fore-and-aft feed when round grinding, it is when kibble (0. 2 ~ 0. 7)Bmm / R, when essence of life is ground, be (0. 2 ~ 0. 3)Bmm / R. Inside the fore-and-aft feed when round grinding, it is when kibble (0. 4 ~ O. 7)Bmm / R, when essence of life is ground, be (0. 25 ~ 0. 4)Bmm / R. Round plane abrasion is transverse outside using emery wheel feed, it is when kibble (0. 3 ~ 0. 7)Bmm / Dst, when essence of life is ground, be (0. 05 ~ 0. 1)Bmm / Dst. (Surplus of 5) workpiece grinding. The grinding processability of stainless steel is poorer, grinding surplus should be taken a few smaller. The circle is mixed outside inside when round grinding, the grinding surplus on the diameter is (0. 15 ~ 0. 3)mm, essence of life grinds surplus for 0. 05mm. When planar grinding, grinding surplus is (0. 15 ~ 0. 2)mm. When workpiece tigidity difference, area is large, take big cost. (6) is cooling. When grinding stainless steel, the emulsion that should use cleanness undertakes cooling adequately, supply quantity is commonly (Min of / of 20 ~ 40)L. When using large emery wheel, supply quantity is above of 80L / Min. 22. What problem should note when grinding stainless steel? (When 1) grinding stainless steel, the cutting blade that emery wheel grinds bead to go up is easy wear away become blunt to mix grind bits to jam reach conglutinate to be in working surface, should seasonable nap emery wheel. When kibble, emery wheel should nap is a few thicker. The emery wheel when essence of life is ground should keep sharp from beginning to end, lest overheat burn. Two side corner is in the emery wheel after nap, applied oilstone is round, do not get hairiness to prick existence. (When grinding of surface roughness of 2) low surface, kibble of part of one's job and essence are ground. (3) is in grinding process, must undertake cooling adequately, many grinding is heated up and undertake in order to take away eroding to emery wheel, reduce emery wheel jams and prevent workpiece to produce burn phenomenon. (4) falls in the premise that assures to machine precision and exterior quality, grinding surplus should as far as possible a few smaller, in order to reduce number of emery wheel nap, improve grinding efficiency. 23. Is high temperature alloy in grinding from time to tome what characteristic? (1) grinding muscularity. The aggrandizement look of high temperature alloy is very much, high temperature intensity is high, cut bits not easy from. Create grinding force more general than grinding steel products is 2 times bigger the left and right sides, and cut when grinding fight force greatly to be more than advocate cutting force. (2) grinding temperature is high. In grinding process, as a result of grinding muscularity, be hard to cut bits from, add surface of emery wheel job to be ground by high temperature alloy bits conglutinate, air hole jams, emery wheel and workpiece surface produce very big clash, produced much grinding heat. The coefficient of thermal conductivity because of high temperature alloy is very low, grinding is hot cannot very fast come out, the temperature that causes grinding division is very high, can amount to 1500 ℃ , commonner than grinding steel products is high 200 ℃ above. (3) emery wheel is easy wear away. High temperature alloy is in the hardness when high temperature, intensity is high, and treatment is sclerotic and serious, grinding force and grinding temperature are high, make emery wheel Yi Dun is changed. The adhesiveness of high temperature alloy is very strong, make the conglutinate that worry bit is in emery wheel apparently, jam emery wheel is stomatic, the grinding capacity that creates emery wheel is reduced, serious when cannot normal grinding, must increase number of nap emery wheel, make emery wheel is used up big. (4) surface quality assures not easily. The coefficient of thermal conductivity as a result of high temperature alloy temperature of low, grinding phenomenon of burn of easy generation of surface of tall, grinding. Nextpage24. When alloy of grinding high temperature how to choose emery wheel? (1) abrasive. When alloy of grinding high temperature, bai Gangyu is used below general situation (WA) , because Bai Gangyu's hardness is taller, grind bead not easy blunt, cutting performance is good. Again the tenacity because of Bai Gangyu is inferior, an easy burst is ground when grinding and form new cutting blade, reason point is relatively sharp, can reduce grinding force and grinding heat. Alloy of grinding high temperature compares good abrasive, it is Chan Pingang jade (SA) . This kind of abrasive every grain is monocrystal, grain is even, sharp much arris, it has many brilliant side, have a lot of cutting blade, not easy in grinding process broken, cutting capability is strong, agree with alloy of grinding high temperature. Still have praseodymium neodymium corundum (NA) , the hardness of this kind of abrasive is taller, brittleness is tallish at Bai Gangyu, good from acute sex in grinding process, be helpful for forming sharp cutting blade, alloy of grinding high temperature (when GH37, GH2132, K5, K3, K12) , have favorable effect. Better with the aperture inside it and alloy of high temperature of grinding of single crystal corundum. The abrasive of alloy of best grinding high temperature is cubic nitrogen changes boron (CBN) . Turn boracic emery wheel with cubic nitrogen, can solve compare small difficult problem with grinding of alloy of high temperature of common abrasive grinding. The grinding when turning alloy of high temperature of GH4169 of grinding of boracic emery wheel with cubic nitrogen is than making an appointment with 35, be single crystal corundum and white corundum emery wheel (17 ~ 35) times. (2) granuality. General to requirement of grinding surface surface roughness when, use the emery wheel of 46# granuality. Lower to requirement of workpiece surface surface roughness when, use the emery wheel of 46# granuality to grind to Ra(0 first. 8 ~ O. After 4) μ M, the emery wheel of granuality of 80# of reoccupy 60# ~ is ground. Compare with the circle outside grinding, grind inside aperture, end panel, Bao Bi when, should choose the emery wheel of thicker granuality. (3) hardness. The emery wheel hardness of alloy of grinding high temperature should compare hardness of emery wheel of grinding carbon steel low, fall off in order to make emery wheel easy obtain from acute sex. Choose emery wheel hardness to be J ~ N commonly. Soft K, L is in commonly used. A bit hard emery wheel is chosen when kibble, softer emery wheel is chosen when essence of life is ground. When figuration is ground, should choose harder emery wheel, in order to carry correct geometrical figure. (4) bond. As a result of the function of high temperature alloy and grinding characteristic, requirement emery wheel has better strength, can bear in grinding process bigger concussion load, should choose commonly be able to bear or endure the bond of pottery and porcelain with corrode sex, taller hear resistance. (5) organization. High temperature alloy belongs to austenite organization mostly, worry bit easy conglutinate, jam surface of emery wheel job. Not only the hardness of requirement emery wheel is a few softer, and the organization of emery wheel should loose, worry bit in order to accommodate. Should choose 5 ~ commonly the thin silk of 8 knits date. 25. How to choose the grinding dosage of alloy of grinding high temperature? (Speed of 1) emery wheel. The emery wheel speed of alloy of grinding high temperature should be in commonly (left and right sides of 20~25)m / S. According to concerning data introduction, should be under 20m / S, the conglutinate with reducing emery wheel and drop grinding temperature. The rate that uses cubic nitrogen to turn boracic emery wheel is (30~35)m / S. (2) workpiece speed. Workpiece speed has very big effect to grinding burn, the high temperature alloy with tall to tenacity, low coefficient of thermal conductivity, answer to raise workpiece rate appropriately, with reduce and overcoming burn phenomenon. But workpiece rate shoulds not be too high, can cause self excited vibration otherwise. The circle is mixed outside inside when round grinding, workpiece speed is left and right sides of 30m / Min. The workbench speed when planar grinding, it is when kibble (Min of / of 25 ~ 28)m, when essence of life is ground, be (Min of / of 15 ~ 25)m. (3) feed. Its size has bigger effect to grinding surface surface roughness. Outside fore-and-aft feed is when round grinding (0.

05 ~ 0.

5)Bmm / R, small cost is taken when essence of life is ground. Inside fore-and-aft feed is when round grinding (0.

1 ~ 0.

3)Bmm / R; Transverse feed is when planar grinding (0.

4 ~ 0.

6)Bmm / Dst. (4) grinding deepness. Outside the grinding deepness when round grinding is (0. 01 ~ 0. 06)mlTl, round grinding is inside (0. 01 ~ 0.

05)mm, planar grinding is (0.

01 ~ 0.

05)mm. Big cost is taken when kibble. (5) grinding surplus. The grinding surplus of high temperature alloy should compare grinding average data is a few less, in order to reduce grinding workload. 26. What problem should grinding note when high temperature alloy? (1) because the grinding temperature of high temperature alloy is high, sufficient cooling fluid should furnish when grinding, so that take away more heat in metal cutting to reach,rinse workpiece and emery wheel surface, and the workpiece surface quality with be obtained better and grinding precision. (2) is machined for workpiece exterior integrality, reduce grinding remaining stress and be out of shape, be less than in grinding surplus 0.

After 15mm, should hold emery wheel sharp and reduce grinding deepness appropriately, prevent emery wheel to jam. (The grinding of alloy of 3) high temperature, emery wheel of correct and seasonable nap is very important. Emery wheel nap has been gotten, can make the grinding of workpiece achieves favorable result, the durability that can raise emery wheel again and reduce manufacturing cost. Use deeper nap quantity and bigger fore-and-aft feed commonly, namely deepness takes knife nap way greatly. The deepness when nap is (0. 07 ~ 0. 1)mm / St, fore-and-aft feed speed is workbench (1.

1 ~ 1.

5)m / Min. The cooling fluid when nap must be irrigated go up in diamond, its discharge should is more than (40~50)L / Min. (When 4) uses cubic nitrogen to change grinding of boracic emery wheel, cannot use water radical cooling fluid. Because the chemistry of this abrasive and other abrasive is different, when high temperature of 1000 ℃ above, cubic nitrogen changes boron and aquatic product to give birth to chemical reaction to decompose for boric acid, the wear and tear of meeting aggravate emery wheel, had better use mineral oil to make grinding juice. Make grinding juice with water-solubility oil, can raise 50 times grinding to compare than aqueous rust preventive, the grinding that uses sulfate mineral oil compares 80 times what be water dissolve oil again. (5) is being used grind greatly law and when cutting a person to grind a way, the T that should notice the possibility arises bend to be out of shape or produce elliptical phenomenon. 27. What characteristic does grinding titanium alloy have? Titanium alloy has high hot strength, than intensity, the sex that fight corrode is good, microtherm performance is good, coefficient of thermal conductivity is low, density is small, have admirable mechanical with physical function, and in be being used extensively at the industry such as aviation, spaceflight, nuclear energy, shipping, chemical industry, oil, metallurgy, medical apparatus and instruments. When grinding titanium alloy, have the following characteristic: (1) grinding temperature is high. When grinding titanium alloy, the proportion that place of slippery brush Cheng holds is large, produce intense friction and flexibility, plasticity to be out of shape. Because the coefficient of thermal conductivity of titanium alloy is very low, be 45 steel (50. 8 ~ of / of K)1 of · of 2w / M L / 5, the temperature that causes grinding division is very high. Below same condition, the grinding temperature of grinding TC9 is grinding of 45 steel (1. 5 ~ 2) times. (2) emery wheel grinds loss effect easily. When grinding titanium alloy, divide felt, outside diffusing, titanium alloy and emery wheel are ground chemistry has between bead, accelerated emery wheel wear process thereby. The emery wheel T after observation wears away makes the appearance, titanium shows shape of cloud and mist to distributing, of almost invisible emery wheel wear bead, make emery wheel conglutinate, grind loss effect. (3) grinding muscularity. When Tc9 of the alloy that grind titanium, the law compares grinding almost to component of force 45 steel are 4 times bigger. (4) surface quality assures not easily. When grinding titanium alloy, workpiece surface produces harmful remains easily to pull stress and exterior pollution layer, and numerical value of exterior surface roughness is greater. The exterior remains after grinding helps volume of stress numerical value, be increased along with grinding dosage and increase, grinding speed is the main factor that remains plays stress to affect. (5) production efficiency is low. As a result of the character of titanium alloy, below the condition that makes sure workpiece machines precision and exterior quality, achieve tall manufacturing efficiency very hard. Because of the emery wheel when grinding easy conglutinate becomes blunt and fail, grinding is lower. Below same condition, the grinding of grinding TC4 is compared have 1 only.

53, and the grinding of 45 steel compares grinding to be 71. 5, the grinding of grinding titanium alloy is compared is grinding the 1 / of 45 steel 47. 28. How to choose the emery wheel of grinding titanium alloy? (1) abrasive. Bai Gangyu (alloy of titanium of the grinding below the condition that WA) emery wheel can is less than in emery wheel speed only commonly or is equal to 10m / S. Because emery wheel rate increases, can make grinding temperature elevatory, titanium alloy surface can produce constituent change, and the oxygen in absorbing air easily below high temperature forms titanium dioxide, make solid solution with Al2O3 again. Increased titanium and Al2O3 consequently. conglutinate adhesion, the felt that causes emery wheel wears away. Green carborundum (GC) and cerium carborundum (CC) abrasive and titanium alloy conglutinate are lighter. Cerium carborundum (the emery wheel of CC) abrasive, the grinding force when grinding titanium alloy is small, and grinding temperature is low. The grinding effect that uses mixture abrasive can rise greatly, grinding comparing can be amounted to 12, grinding temperature can reduce 600 ℃ the following. Be like with green carborundum (GC) and cerium carborundum (CC) gives priority to abrasive, with chromic corundum (PA) , Chan Pingang jade (corundum of SA) , zirconium (ZA) or microcrystalline corundum (MA) is deputy abrasive. Use making synthetic diamond (JR) and cubic nitrogen change boron (CBN) exceed hard abrasive, the effect of grinding titanium alloy is best. Cubic nitrogen changes boron (the grinding of alloy of titanium of grinding of CBN) emery wheel is compared, the 50 times ~ that is mixture abrasive 60 times, and the leftover stress of workpiece is almost press stress. Its effect sees watch 2 23. (2) granuality. The granuality of abrasive of commonly used emery wheel is 80# of 36 # ~ . Carry out a proof, can reduce grinding force already, can raise grinding comparing again, use granuality 80# , the emery wheel that hardness is J is advisable. (3) hardness. When grinding titanium alloy, the hardness of emery wheel should be K ~ M. The emery wheel with soft hardness, although temperature of grinding of grinding force Xiaohe is low, but emery wheel threshing is too fast, make emery wheel is used up big, grinding comparing is small. (4) bond. The emery wheel of grinding titanium alloy, bond of general pottery and porcelain (V) , but the grinding power of the alloy of titanium of emery wheel grinding of this kind of bond is relatively a few greater. Colophony bond (the grinding force of the alloy of titanium of emery wheel grinding of B) is lesser, grinding temperature is inferior also. (5) organization. The organization of the emery wheel of grinding titanium alloy, in using, wait slant 5 loose ~ 8 advisable. When figuration grinding and accurate grinding, to maintain emery wheel face and surface roughness of workpiece grinding surface, should choose more close together emery wheel organization. CNC Milling